LS 10 Week 4 – 6 The Basic Units of Life

3 weeks (12 hours)

 Cells: The Basic Units of Life

 Molecular Make-Up

Cells are mostly made up of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and water.

Brief overview of the history of microscopy: from lens and light microscopes and to electron microscopes. How these instruments enabled people to see cells and then structures within cells which led to cell theory.

(Briefly revise Grade 9 work on the cell.)

Cell Structure and Function: The Roles of Organelles

  • cell wall – support structure in plant cells only;
  • cell membrane – fluid mosaic model, boundaries and transport: movement across membranes: diffusion, osmosis and active transport;
  • nucleus, chromatin material, nuclear membrane, nucleopores, nucleolus: the control centre, heredity;
  • cytoplasm – storage and circulation of materials;
  • mitochondria – release energy during cell respiration;
  • ribosomes – protein synthesis;
  • endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth) – transport systems;
  • Golgi body – assembles secretions;
  • plastids – production and storage of food and pigments; and
  • vacuole, lysosomes, vesicles – storage, digestion and osmoregulation

Relate structure and location of organelles to their functions.

(This is an introduction; some organelle functions will be explored in more detail in other sections.)
Cells differ in size, shape and structure in order to carry out specialised functions [link to tissues].
The differences between plant and animal cells (link to  Grade 9).